Varicose veins in the lower part of the leg: signs, symptoms, treatment

Varicose veins - many people are prone to this disease, during life everyone is at risk for many reasons. The pathological process is most often localized in the legs, affecting the superficial veins, which develop, it can cause serious danger to health.

However, in addition to the ducts located close to the surface, varicose veins can also affect the veins located inside, they are often larger. This type of pathology is capable of conveying more problems, leading to more serious violations. To fight the disease, it is important to understand the mechanism of its development, causes, symptoms, and also know the principles of its treatment.

What are deep varicose veins

causes varicose veins in the lower part of the leg

If we are basically talking about varicose veins, this term in medicine refers to vascular disease, in which the function of transporting blood by these vessels is disrupted due to their deformity of varying severity. In other words, the veins stretch, expand, the walls become thinner, the work of the valves located in them is interrupted, and so on. All this leads to the fact that the blood moves worse upwards, towards the heart, and stagnation occurs in the ducts.

Most people imagine varicose veins in the lower part of the foot as protrusions of individual ducts and vascular networks close to the skin surface. At the same time, swollen and deformed veins can be seen with the naked eye and this idea is correct, if we talk purely about aesthetic manifestations.

Regarding varicose veins in, or more precisely, varicose veins, we are talking about a similar disorder, but now it affects the venous ducts located in the thickness of muscle tissue. This means that even at the most severe stage of the pathological process, these veins will not penetrate to the surface.

Such pathological processes are dangerous not just because of their secrecy. The deep veins, including the small and large tibia, calves, soleus and others, are much larger. Thus, they allow more blood, play a more important role in systemic circulation, and their defeat has a stronger impact on human health.

This means that with varicose veins from the deep veins, the stagnant blood process is much more serious. In this case, a person may feel severe pain, increased leg fatigue, and so on. But the more dangerous consequence is that with too much pressure on the veins, their thin walls are unbearable, threatening the rupture of the last and internal bleeding. In the case of deep veins, bleeding, depending on its severity and localization, turns out to be much more severe and dangerous than with varicose veins in the superficial canal.

Causes of disease

Understanding why deep varicose veins develop allows patients, if not to prevent the progression of the disease, at least to fight it more successfully and prevent pathology from developing.

In general, it is necessary to list not only the causes of varicose veins, but also the factors that contribute to this:

  • The main reason is constant leg strain due to long standing. This is partly why varicose veins are considered a common occupational disease in cooks, hairdressers, and others who, because of their professional work, spend most of their time on their feet, and even in static conditions.
  • Genetics - most doctors reasonably believe that the tendency to develop varicose veins is inherited. In this case, the tendency of venous valve deficiency is implied.
  • Since constant load on the legs is a predisposing factor for the development of varicose veins, this pathological process will most likely develop in obese people. Moreover, the heavier the weight, the higher the risk of getting the disease.
  • Passive and inactive lifestyle - lack of normal stress on muscle structure also has a negative impact on vascular system function. The chances of varicose veins are higher if a person not only does not exercise and does not move much, but sits all the time.
  • Pregnancy - in women in position, the development of varicose veins is caused by several factors. This is an increase in load on the legs due to fetal growth, blood chemical changes, but the main reason is the restructuring of the hormonal background, that is, increased production of progesterone. Similarly, varicose veins can lead to prolonged use of hormone medications.
  • Thrombosis is a disease in which the amount of platelets in the blood increases, due to which the coefficient of blood clots increases. This factor leads to slowing of blood circulation, as well as damage to blood vessels.

This is a list of the most likely causes and factors that provoke the development of varicose veins in the ducts in the lower part of the leg. However, endocrine disorders, physical damage, etc. can also be added here.

Symptoms

As mentioned earlier, the main disadvantage of deep varicose veins is that their development is not noticed at an early stage, so there are no visual signs of the disease. However, even the initial form of the pathological process has certain symptoms, which are important to note:

  1. Patients feel increased fatigue and a feeling of heaviness in the legs, which makes them feel especially in the evening or late afternoon. This is a feature that after resting or sleeping at night, these symptoms disappear and do not bother until the next day, which puts pressure on the feet during the day;
  2. Swelling of the feet, even small feet, is another warning sign. If the foot swells in the evening or morning for no apparent reason, for example, if there is no renal pathology, this may indicate varicose veins.

When these symptoms are found, it is very important to see a doctor for a diagnosis. However, the initial stage of varicose veins can go completely unnoticed, in this case, clinical signs have already appeared with the development of stages 2-3 of the disease, it may be as follows:

  1. In addition to fatigue and heaviness, worsening in the evening, the patient complained of severe pain in the legs. Pain syndrome also tends to increase in the evening, but in the later stages of the disease it may always be present.
  2. Increased swelling, the feet can also swell permanently, while the intensity of the swelling is high, it is impossible to skip it.
  3. Defeat and deformation of the deep vein in the final stages of pathological development is reflected in the superficial ducts, as venous tissue appears in the legs, and vascular "stars" appear. There is also a protrusion of the veins in the legs during strenuous exercise.
  4. Also, the skin of the lower extremities acquires a bluish color, especially in places where the inner vessels are most affected.
  5. One of the signs of the development of varicose veins is calf muscle spasm, they often bother the patient, especially during night sleep.

Diagnostics

diagnostic options for varicose veins in the lower leg

For accurate differential diagnosis and diagnosis, as well as for more accurate treatment, you should consult a phlebologist.

Specialists will prescribe a number of diagnostic measures, in general, the disease is detected as follows:

  1. Preliminary examination with collection of anamnesis and patient complaints.
  2. Foot duct ultrasound.
  3. Doppler ultrasonography to detect blood clots.
  4. Urinalysis and blood chemistry may also be required.

Methods of treatment

Treatment of varicose veins in the lower part of the foot also requires the participation and strict supervision of a phlebologist.

In addition, to achieve maximum therapeutic effect, the treatment should be complex, consisting of:

  1. Drug therapy.
  2. Folk medicine.
  3. Wearing compression garments.
  4. Surgical intervention.
  5. Physiotherapy training.
  6. Lifestyle adjustments.

To understand the principles and tactics of general treatment, we will consider three main methods of therapy, traditional and alternative medicine, as well as surgical treatment.

Medicine

Depending on the stage of the disease development and patient complaints, drug therapy includes the use of several groups of drugs:

  • Painkillers, among which are mainly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants.
  • The basis of treatment is venotonic drugs that fight venous insufficiency.
  • Anticoagulants that help reduce blood clotting.
  • Phlebotonics that strengthens the walls of blood vessels and increases lymph outflow.

People's solution

In folk medicine, varicose veins on the lower part of the foot are usually treated with special compresses and rubs based on natural ingredients.

method of treating varicose veins on the lower part of the leg

Although not very effective in the defeat of internal vessels, they still have certain therapeutic effects, which are enhanced when combined with traditional medicine.

The following tools are very useful in this regard:

  • The texture of propolis alcohol.
  • Horse chestnut texture.
  • Compressed fresh cabbage.
  • Essential oil bath.

Surgery

Despite all of the above, surgical intervention is still the most effective method of treating any form of varicose veins, provided the disease persists.

In this case, several types of operations can also be distinguished:

  • Phlebectomy- amputation of the affected vessel area.
  • Sclerotherapyis ​​a new method that involves the injection of a special substance into a vein that attaches to a blood vessel, after which the latter is gradually replaced by connective tissue.
  • Laser intravascular coagulation- a thermal effect on the affected venous area, which damages the vascular wall and at the same time prevents blood reflux.